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Jan. 21, 1999
_______________________________________________________________________
See the Happy Hacker web site at http://www.happyhacker.org
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Opening Comments
URLs
Reader Submissions
Clearing Browser History...Final Edition
Internet Protocols
SNMP Explained
Perl Corner
Editor's Comments

******************************************************************
Opening Comments
Okay, another issue of the HHD is on the way!!  Seems last issue,
several people took offense at the quote that I said came from
the Bible.  Okay, I apologize.  I don't know that it came from
the Bible...I've heard the quote for years, and never thought to
look it up.  However, very little was said about the technical
portion of the Digest, so things went rather well!!

******************************************************************
URLs

Hunt for 'Easter Eggs' on your computer!!
http://www.eeggs.com/
http://www.htsoft.com/easter/
http://handel.pacific.net.sg/~panglee/easter.html

Traceroute Servers
http://boardwatch.internet.com/traceroute.html
**Note:  Some of these links are old and dead...but not all
of them.  Use these systems to run traceroutes...but remember,
the traceroute will be in relation to the server, not your
machine.

The CyberSpace Atlas
http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/casa/martin/atlas/isp_maps.html

Network Associates Security Advisory Site
http://www.nai.com/products/security/advisory/default.asp

What are the laws regarding computer crime in each state of
the US??
http://www.icsa.net/icsalaws

******************************************************************
Reader Submissions

>From "NoWorries" <noworries@telia.com>:

Seems NoWorries (bet his ISP is in the Down Under) sent in an
email regarding a product that he'd seen...go to:

http://www.telusplanet.net/public/don1/netbus.html

Evidently, this is a superior NetBus scanner, allegedly better
than the scanner that comes with NetBus itself.  I downloaded it
in the wee hours this fine morn...and it seemed to run fine.
This scanner also allegedly changes the password for you...so one
could potentially hijack someone else's NetBus.  It's definitely
worth a look.  Just keep in mind...you have to download the
original version before you d/l the update...

"Red Tide" <red_tide@mailcity.com> is asking for help from anyone
who speaks/reads/writes any of the following languages:  Chinese,
Czech, Danish, Dutch, Esperanto, French, German, Greek, Hungarian,
Italian, Indonesian, Latin, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Portuguese,
Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Thai, Turkish,
Ukrainian, and Vietnamese.  Seems Red got some translation software
and wants some assistance...so if anyone is willing to assist
another reader, drop him a line.

Vesselin Bontchev <bontchev@COMPLEX.IS> sent in the following email
that he received:

From: Daryl Pecelj <darylp@MICROSOFT.com>
Subject: HTML virus patch available for MS Internet Explorer
Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 13:03:44 -0800

Due to last weeks debacle (Remote Explorer) and all the unnecessary
hype, I was actually unable to send this information out on time.
The truth is the fallout from remote explorer has still got me under
water however this info must be delivered in a timely manner.

Last week Microsoft's Internet Explorer team released a patch that
addresses 1Internal's HTML viruses specifically the HTML.worm where
the virus author exploited a security bug in IE. The patch is called
"Frame Spoof" and can be obtained from
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/security/default.asp.
I know this gets confusing...the fact is this patch incorporates all
the prior patches available for IE and is the only one needed for a
completely patched system (from an Internet Explorer stand point)...
hope that helps clear some confusion!

More information:

Internet Explorer 3.X and 4.0
-----------------------------
Internet Explorer 3.X and 4.0 users must first upgrade to Internet
Explorer 4.01 with Service Pack 1, which is available at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/download/. After installing the
upgrade, apply the Internet Explorer 4.01 patch as discussed above.

Internet Explorer 4.01
----------------------
Customers using Internet Explorer 4.01 (with or without Service Pack 1)
can obtain the patch from the Internet Explorer Security
web site, (http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/security/spoof.asp).

Macintosh & Solaris
----------------------
The patches for the Macintosh, HPUX and Solaris versions will be
slightly delayed. When they are available, a notice will be posted
on http://www.microsoft.com/ie/security/.
 

Please inform your customers who are concerned about this issue and
point them to the available patch. As always, feel free to ping me if
you have any issues concerning this patch.

[NOTE:  I made the call to withhold the author's personal info...
I didn't have his permission to release it.]

******************************************************************
Clearing Browser History...Final Edition.

Kalanga Joffres sent me a URL with his latest contribution.  But
since I do not want to devote every Digest solely to this topic,
I'll put the URl here for everyone to visit...

http://2waymedia.hypermart.net/hh/browsers/index.htm

Thanks goes to Kalanga, and his collaborator, Per Haglund.

******************************************************************
Internet Protocols

Want to find out a little more about Internet protocols?  Wondering
what to do next when you telnet to port 80 on a web server?  Well,
check out...

http://dir.yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Communications_and_
Networking/Protocols/

Now, just about everything on the Internet is documented in
some form or another.  The most popular and indepth form is the
Request For Comments, or RFCs.  The documents range in topic and
content.  Sites to begin looking at RFCs include:

http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/rfc/
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/rfcietf.html
http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/information/rfc.html

Go to these sites (or a variety of others) and read up on the
real-deal, with regards to Internet protocols, etc.

******************************************************************
SNMP Explained

If you've examined the topic of networking at all, you've likely
come across the SNMP protocol.  SNMP stands for the "Simple Network
Management Protocol".  Back in the mid- to late-'80's, a protocol
was needed to manage network devices, such as routers, switches,
etc.  The interim solution was SNMP, but that solution caught on
so well that the follow-on protocol was all but abandoned.

This is how SNMP works...the management station (MS) has SNMP tools
for making queries.  The managed devices (MD) have 'agents' running
on them...small daemons that just sit and wait for requests.  When
the MS sends a request (SNMP uses the UDP protocol) to the agent on
the MD, the agent consults it's managed information base (MIB) for
the information and sends the response back to the MS.  The MIB is
essentially a database that resides on the device.  Also, given
particule conditions, the MD can send a 'trap' to the MS, alerting
the MS to some condition.

Here's an example of the communications that takes place:

   [MS]   --->  SNMP query (UDP, port 161)  --->  [MD]

   [MS]   <---  SNMP response (UPD)         <---  [MD]

These queries and responses are referred to as 'polling'.  The
MS 'polls' the MD for information.

   [MS]   <---  SNMP trap (UPD, port 162)   <---  [MD]

This communication is referred to as a 'trap'.  The MD finds that
a particular condition has been met, and sends a message to the
MS.  This form of communication is also used by intrusion detection
systems to tie into the network management system...

Now, here's some particulars regarding SNMP.  The first version,
SNMP v1, is probably the most widely used version.  Some systems
seem to install and enable SNMP with little or no input from the
user.  Cisco routers simply require that the entry for SNMP be
marked yes or no, for example.

As I said, the MIB is essentially a database of managed information.
The MIB contains information about various aspects of the system...
the number of IP packets to go in and out of an interface (NIC),
the number of TCP reconnect requests, who to contact if there's a
problem, and the routing table for the interface.  Each piece of
information is referenced by an object identifier or 'OID'.  When
you want a particular piece of information, you make the request
for the particular OID.  Now, these OIDs are long sequences of single
digits separated by dots...which is why there are tools that let you
choose the information you want, and substitutes the particular OID
into the request for you.  Two of these tools are WS_Ping Pro from
IPSwitch, and the Java SNMP classes and demo application from
Advent Network Management (see URLs below).

Here's an example OID...for the system uptime (how long since the
last reboot of the managed object) you need to request:

sysUpTime or OID '1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0'

Hhhhmmm...which would be easier to remember?

One of the configuration options for SNMP is something called the
'community string'.  This is a piece of information that, w/ SNMP
v1, is passed on the UDP datagrams in plain text, and is used as
a sort of password.  For the query to be valid, the community string
must be correct.  Well, like many things on the Internet, this option
is left at it's default value...'public'.

SNMP v1 has three types of requests...get, get-next, and set.  Because
of the extreme lack of security, many systems do not implement the
set capability...Cisco and Microsoft's versions come to mind.  However,
using the get and get-next capability, you can get all sorts of great
information.  By using get-next requests, you can get the routing tables

for the interface (NIC).  Using just the get request, you can get
information on the number of IP/ICMP/TCP/UDP packets to go in and out
of the interface.  You can get the system contact and information
strings.

In this Digest, I am not going to go into great detail about the
various types of managed objects, or the various vendor-specific
MIBs that are available.  My intention has been to provide a brief
overview of SNMP, and hopefully spark your interest for further
investigation.  I am not going to give you a list, but there are
many sites on the Internet that think they are secure, but they
allow SNMP datagrams to travel in and out of their networks.  So
imagine walking into one of these company offices and handing them
a map of their network...which you developed by using a Java-based
SNMP tool that your wrote!!

Use any of the links to RFCs from the 'Internet Protocols'
section above to look for RFC 1157, regarding SNMP.

Info on SNMP
http://www.inforamp.net/~kjvallil/t/snmp.html
http://snmp.cs.utwente.nl/

Advent Network Mgmt's Java SNMP classes
http://www.adventnet.com/

30-day eval version of WS_Ping from IPSwitch
http://www.ipswitch.com/Products/WS_Ping/index.html

For Perl programmers, I found a Perl module at CPAN, written by
David M. Town <dtown@fore.com>, which is really great!  You
don't need to have the CMU SNMP package installed...all you need
to do is un-tar the archive and move the .pm file to the right
location.  This provides a cross-platform SNMP capability...I have
a script working on NT that can be moved to Linux or Solaris and
run without modification.

******************************************************************
Perl Corner

One or two readers have shown interest in Perl programming, so I
thought that I would include a Perl Corner here for future Perl-
Win32 programmers.  I will be posting short tutorials and exercises
here...snippets of code that are written by myself and your
wonderful readers!  Maybe by inviting contributions, we can all
learn a little more.

The first thing you need to do is to get Perl.  You need ActivePerl,
and the latest version is build 509.  Go to:

http://www.activestate.com/ActivePerl/download.htm

and download the build.  The file name is 'APi509e.exe' and the
file is about 4.6MB.  After you install it, on either 95, 98 or
NT, make sure that the path to perl.exe is correct in your PATH
statement.

For some basic tutorials, start by browsing around:

http://www.perl.com
http://www.perl.org
http://www.netaxs.com/~joc/perlwin32.html

Before we get into the particulars about the language, we'll do the
obligatory 'Hello World' program.  Now, Perl programs end in the
'.pl' extension...the easiest way to write your programs is to go
to the Perl directory (usually c:\perl) and type:

c:\perl>notepad hello.pl

Now, in Notepad, type the following lines:

#! c:\perl\bin\perl.exe
print "Hello, World!\n";

Now, save the file and type:

c:\perl>hello.pl

Tada!!  Your first program.  Now, to spruce it up a little, change
the program to read:

#! c:\perl\bin\perl.exe
$name = $ARGV[0];
print "Hello, $name!\n";

Now, type:

c:\perl>hello.pl myname

Okay, now let's add a little something extra...our last version of
hello.pl took an argument, and displayed it in the text that was
printed to the screen.  Now, let's set it up so that it will print
either the argument, or a default, if no argument is given:

#! c:\perl\bin\perl.exe
$name = shift || 'Capt. Picard';
print "Hello, $name!\n";

Now that we've done a couple of programs, let's look at the particular
parts of the program.  The first line of your Perl scripts should
start with the 'she-bang' line...this is a holdover from Unix, and
identifies the interpreter to be used when executing the script.
The '#!' is referred to as 'she-bang' and is followed by the path to
the Perl interpreter...on Win95 or NT this will likely be c:\perl\
bin\perl.exe, if you installed Perl in the c:\perl directory.

The next line, in the last two scripts, got the arguments that were
entered with the script.  In the first case, we used $ARGV[0], and
in the second case, we used 'shift'.  In the second script, we
used the line:

$name = shift || 'Capt. Picard';

which tells the interpreter, "Get the first argument and assign it
to scalar (variable) '$name', but if there aren't any arguments,
assign 'Capt. Picard' to $name."

Finally, we send the text to 'standard output' (ie, STDOUT, or the
screen) using the print statement.

Okay, more next time!  User contributions are appreciated...please
comment the code (comments are lines that begin with just a '#'),
and your contribution will be copyrighted to you.  Next time,
we'll look at getting some Windows-specific information from your
own computer.  Before too long, we'll be writing sockets...  ;-)

******************************************************************
Editor's Comments:  Well, I hope everyone's enjoyed this issue.
Right now, these Digests are coming out on a fairly regular basis,
but remember...the Digests and Guides are purely a voluntary effort
by myself, Carolyn, and everyone else.  Reader contributions are
always welcome, but please be clear and concise when you send an
email in...that way, we can read it quicker and include it in the
Digest!!

******************************************************************


   
 

This is a list devoted to *legal* hacking! If you plan to use any
information in this Digest or at our Web site to commit crime, go away!
Foo on you! Don't email us bragging about any crimes you may have committed.
We mean it. 

For Windows questions, email keydet89@yahoo.com or editor@cmeinel.com
For Unix questions, contact unixeditor@cmeinel.com.
For Macs, email Strider <s.corinth@iname.com> 

Happy Hacker staff: Unix editor, <unixeditor@cmeinel.com>;
Windows editor, Keydet89 <editor@cmeinel.com>; postmasters Jonathan D.
Zerulik and William Lewis <>; Hacker Wargame Director,
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Grand Pooh-bah: Carolyn Meinel <>

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