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July 1997 Digests

     Happy System Administrator Digest: 7-2-97

     This is a moderated list for the discussion of installing
                and maintaing a Linux system.
               The moderator is Jon McClintock

             Subscription requests and Submissions to :

                         Back-issues at :
            H a p p y   A d m i n i s t r a t i o n !


1. A note from the moderator
2. secret T/t-bit of chmod
3. Can't load X
4. Re: Happy-SAD June 29, 1997
5. Re: [HSAD] Removing apps from fvwm
6. HSAD: got one of the answers
7. Happy Systems Administrator Guide #2 (first released)


1. A note from the moderator
From: Moderator <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

Hello again,

This is the eighth Happy System Administrator Digest. It also contains the first
released HSAD-Guide.

The guide lists many useful applications for Linux which can get your system
moving. It helps to demonstrate that Linux isn't just something you boot into
once in awhile to do hacking. With a little patience, you can make your Linux
system more functional than a Win95 system.

Okay, so the guide is a little short, but I think it makes up for that in

I keep getting more requests for subscriptions, so something's working right.
If you'd like to archive the HSAD's, or put a link to my page on yours, let
me know, and I'll put a link to yours off mine.

Happy Administration,


(Added 7/4): So, you're probably wondering why this digest is dated 7/2,
but you're getting it on the fourth? Well, I had it written up, and I was
in my mail software when *blink*, poop goes the power. And poop goes the
ISP. I couldn't get it out yesterday (Thursday), because I was busy flying
home. Oh well, keep it coming.


2. secret T/t-bit of chmod
From: Meino Christian Cramer <mccramer@solfire.ludwigsburg.netsurf.de>

Hi there all!

I have Linux installed and I am happy with it.

But from time to time there are questions and
things, which I want to know, but no doc or
source code give me the answer.

Now -- it is such a "time".

I've been struggled over the "t" and "T"
bit of the chmod-command.

The man-pages said for the t-bit
"save  program  text on swap device (t)"

(and what's about directories???)

but this isn't true.

If I do a chmod 7552 I will get a "T" instead
of "t" -- also no answer from the man-pages.

Does anybody out there know, what that`s good for?

Thanks for your help!



3. Can't load X
From: gfm <bean@audiophile.com>

The first time I started X, I got a message saying 'not enough memory
for 800x600'..or something to that effect. So then I went and modified
the XConfig file to comment out the lines referring to svga and
uncommented those pertaining to vga16, and did some other modifications
besides those, and now I'm receiving 'xinit and X server not found' etc.
errors. If anyone has ideas on how to solve this or can point me to a
site that could be of help, a reply would be greatly appreciated.


[ Jon: Make sure that your X server is set correctly. Do an 'ls -l' on
       /usr/bin/X11/X, and see where the link points to. Make sure it points
       to the proper server for your video card (or the VGA/SVGA server,
       if your specific card isn't supported). ]


4. Re: Happy-SAD June 29, 1997
From: "Krzysztof G. Baranowski" <kgb@rubikon.net.pl>

On Sun, 29 Jun 1997, Jon McClintock wrote:

#6. X-terms
#From: Anonymous
#I know that I can use alt-<function key> to move between tty's and login
#as different users when I am using the command line..  Is there any way
#to start different xterm windows and login to them as different
It's simple. Run another xterm and then  su <user>. Give a password
and have fun. I suppose you know how to move between windows ;-).

#7. Desktop alternatives
#From: Astucious D Hacker <astuce@juno.com>
#What desktop alternatives are there beside xfree86 for slackware?  Could
#you say a little  bit about the alternatives as well. Thanks Astucious
 Slackware is one of many available distributions of Linux.
The others are RedHat (www.redhat.com), Debian (www.debian.org),
Caldera Open Linux (correct me if I am wrong).
 XFree86 is an X-server. The only alternative I know is
the commercial X-server - Metro-X, but you have to pay for it.
 With X-servers you can use one of many window managers
available. They are: fvwm, fvwm-95 (just like W'95), mwm (available
with Motif), Enlightemenet and so on... Check Yahoo pages.



5. Re: [HSAD] Removing apps from fvwm
From: Neon

 hello .

> Please post this anonymously.
I thought Linux was legal ;)

> What is the best way to delete applications, and to make sure that
> their names are removed from the menu that shows up when I
> left-click on the desktop.
I don't know the tools you have , but  my Distribution (a german one
DLD 5.2 Pro) contained a nice tool named ViPer (Visual Packager) .

AFAIK this works for RPM-Packages only ...

Maybe you can find it .. it's pretty easy with this one .

To remove the entry's in fvwm's Menu just let it reconfigure
(this should check all installed packages on your system and
[re-]create the menu's .
Should be started with :  /etc/X11/fvwm95/system.fvwm95rc  )

(maybe there is an Admin-tool which makes this a bit easier)

Have a nice day

[ Jon: As Joey noticed in his next posting, fvwm is configured through
       the file system.fvwmrc. And, as I pointed out, the Linux Gazette has
       lots of information on cool ways to configure fvwm. ]


6. HSAD: got one of the answers
From: Joey Maier <maierj@okstate.edu>


I had given you an HSAD message to post re: changing the programs listed
in the popup menus for fvwm.

I started poking around and found out that there is a file in my X11/fvwm
directory that contains all the specifications for the menus, and that
you can easily edit with vi.  :) I think it is named system.fvwmrc [not
@ home right now, or I would check]

I still have not found out how to change my default screensaver. :(
  Joey Maier: maierj AT okstate.edu, SAM009   Geek Code: GS e+++ C+(++) L+>++

[ Jon: The screen saver is a program called 'xlock'. Do a man xlock to find
       out more about it. Then grep system.fvwmrc for xlock, and change
       the appropriate line. ]


7. Happy Systems Administrator Guide #2 (first released)
From: Me <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

Things you can do with Linux.

1. Introduction
2. Graphics
3. Games!
4. Applications


1. Introduction

Well, now that you've spent umpteen hours installing and configuring Linux,
what are you going to do with it?

Sure, you could do the usual thing, and probably the original reason you got
it, you could use it as a shell account to do all of your hacking.

But come on! You're not going to waste several hundred megs of hard drive space,
just so you can hack, are you? You've got the full power of one of the first
native 32-bit Intel operating systems.

There are plenty of freeware/shareware/Gnuware applications available for
you to play with. From 3D graphics to programming to games!

So, this document will point some of these wonderful gems out to you.

2. Graphics

Sure, Linux has a great shell system, and is excellent for text-based
operations. But did you know that there are some high-end graphics packages
available, at little or no cost?

2.1. Ray-tracers

The first ones I'll talk about are what's called a Ray-tracers.

POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision), is an application that takes in simple
descriptions of three dimensional worlds, and outputs stunning 3D images.
You don't even need X-windows to run it (although it helps when viewing the

The POV-Ray homepage is at "http://www.povray.org/". Here you'll see some
stunning examples of its output. You can download precompiled binaries (which
run faster), and the source.

A more advanced (read: complex and difficult) ray-tracer is BMRT (Blue Moon
Rendering Tools), which uses Pixar's RenderMan standard to describe its scenes.
In addition to ray-tracing, BMRT performs Radiosity, a very cool (but
computationally intensive) 3d mechanism. Download binaries at:

2.2. Modellers

So, it's a little difficult to describe a 3D world using text, eh? Well,
several people have created modellers as front-ends to the ray-tracers.
To use these, you will have to have X installed.

AC3D is a highly reccomended modeller that outputs in both POV-Ray and
RenderMan format. Check it out at:

2.3. Image manipulation

If you have an image that you want to modify, there are several utilities out
there that'll get you on your way.

First, is an app that you may or may not know about, and it comes with most
distributions of X. The app I'm talking about is XV. XV is an awesome imaging
utility that allows you to cut, copy, crop, rotate, and otherwise manipulate
almost any type of image. The homepage is "http://www.trilon.com/xv/".

For those command-line junkies, there's netpbm, a suite of conversion/manipu-
lation utilties, all command line based.

If you want to view postscript files, you'll want to have Ghostscript and
GhostView installed. See http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/

Last but not least, an image composition program, GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation
Program). See http://scam.xcf.berkeley.edu/~gimp/

3. Games!

Sure, you know about all the applications for Linux, but did you know there
are some pretty cool games for Linux?

Abuse is a cool game (which I beleive has been ported to other platforms),
written almost entirely in LISP. ftp.crack.com should have it, but they've
been down lately. Search for "+linux +abuse +quake" and you should find it.

Also, the same goons, who have absolutly no life, ported Quake to Linux.
See the Linux Quake page at http://threewave.planetquake.com/linux/

There is also Linux DOOM. See the Linux DOOM FAQ at:

For even more Linux games, see the Linux Game Tome at

4. Applications

So, you were wondering when I'd get down to some actuall apps, weren't you?

PAPyRUS is a full-fledged word-processor for X. It looks like a Word clone,
but the documentation is in French.

For $220, you can get Caldera's Internet Office Suite, which includes
WordPerfect for Unix, an e-mail package, NExS (a spreadsheet program), and

You can also get Mathematica for Linux. Check for Student versions, they come
lots cheaper.

There are tons more apps listed at the Linux Applications and Utilities Page:


Jon McClintock <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

     Happy System Administrator Digest: 7-20-97

                          Welcome to
                             T H E
                          D I G E S T

       moderated forum discussing all things legal related to:
              installing, configuring, and maintaining,
                         a Linux system.



1. A note from the moderator
2. Changing default screensaver
3. Re: t bit of chmod
4. Re: HSAD: July 2, 1997
5. help with long linux booting
6. Re: X-terms and Sudo
7. FIPS Blues
8. Libraries
10. chmod +x  and mtools
11. Linux from the CD
12. Winmodems and Linux NOT


1. A note from the moderator
From: Moderator <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

Hello again,

Sorry I'm late on the ninth HSAD. But I had good reason. Last weekend was
DEFCON, and I had planned to send out one from there. But, the T1 never
arrived, so I couldn't connect to the internet. Then, Wednesday, I came down
with Sinusitis, which put me out until yesterday.

Unfortunately (for you), my new toy came yesterday. The IBM PC110 is a fully
functional PC, that fits in a 4"x6" square. 256-color, VGA, sound-card, modem,
everything. So, I spent yesterday and most of today putting Linux on that.

So now here I am, setting up to get you the HSAD, as promised, which I hope
to be a good one.

Oh, and for all those who offered to write guides, I'm still waiting...

Happy Administration,



2. Changing default screensaver
From: phil lewis <pip@connect-wales.co.uk>

> I still have not found out how to change my default screensaver. :(
> --
>   Joey Maier: maierj AT okstate.edu, SAM009   Geek Code: GS e+++ C+(++) L+>++


Don't know if this works on other distributions, but on my redhat 4.1
putting the line   xscreensaver -timeout 30 -cycle 10 &   in
/etc/X11/xinit/.xinitrc starts the screensaver after 30 mins of inactivity
and cycles through them all showing each one for ten mins..
Do a man xscreensaver for other commands.

Hope that's what you were after..



3. Re: t bit of chmod
From: Christopher Hicks <chicks@chicks.net>

On Fri, 4 Jul 1997, Meino Christian Cramer wrote:
> I've been struggled over the "t" and "T"  bit of the chmod-command.
> The man-pages said for the t-bit "save program text on swap device (t)"
> (and what's about directories???)
> If I do a chmod 7552 I will get a "T" instead of "t" -- also no answer
> from the man-pages.

The t flag (a.k.a. the sticky bit) has an ancient purpose when applied to
files which is mainly of historical amusement on modern machines.  It also
has a quite practical purpose when applied to directories.

First, the amusement.  Back in the days when UNIX ran on machines with 16k
or less of RAM (!), it was a significant performance improvement to be
able to keep some programs accessible more quickly.  Widely used programs
(such as vi) had their sticky bit set, so they'd 'stick' around.  This
meant that even if noone was using vi at the moment, it would at least
stay in swap since swap was often a faster device and there's less
computation to swap something in than to start it up from scratch.  With
modern OS's such as linux which dynamically allocate disk cache on
machines with up to a gigabyte of RAM, there is little value to the
sticky bit.  For FILES, that is.

But the sticky bit is not just an anachronism.  When applied to
directories it causes a quite valuable behaviour.  It prevents people from
deleting or moving files they don't own.  You might think "but UNIX
handles that anyway".  Well, sort of.  Deleting and renaming are dependant
on the permissions of the DIRECTORY.  Since everyone has their own home
directory and has their own files in it, why would anyone care?  Because
of tmp directories.  Tmp directories are world writable.  This would
normally allow anyone to delete or rename files in them -- whether they
owned the file or not.  But that would make temporary directories
significantly less useful.  So it was decided that the sticky bit would be
'overloaded' with a special behaviour when it was set on directories.

If you're interested in seeing all the sticky files and directories on
your system, try
 find / -perm -1000 -ls
(This may not work on some commercial systems that use non-gnu versions
of find.)


      Free software isn't free, but expensive software is expensive
            "Unix is hacker crack."  -- Unix-Haters Handbook


4. Re: HSAD: July 2, 1997
From: "Krzysztof G. Baranowski" <kgb@rubikon.net.pl>

#> What is the best way to delete applications, and to make sure that
#> their names are removed from the menu that shows up when I
#> left-click on the desktop.
It depends what do you mean. Deleting and apllication from HDD or
from pop-up menu in your window manager. I hope you know how to
delete files from HDD. If you want delete sth' from menu you
must edit your window managers' config file.

ps. Watch out, because RedHat uses common configuration files for
    fvwm and fvwm-95. It's called TheNextLevel. The hidden files
    are located in /etc/X11/TheNextLevel. If you have IQ >= 95
    you can safe edit them ;-) Don't forget to make backup copy.
#For $220, you can get Caldera's Internet Office Suite, which includes
#WordPerfect for Unix, an e-mail package, NExS (a spreadsheet program), and
#  http://www.caldera.com/products/
There is also:
- commercial Office Suite - "Applixware" from RedHat
- StarOffice 3.1 - it's free only for non-commercial use
  (just like PGP). It's mirrored all over the world.
  But it requires lot of memory and fast hard disk.
  Motif is also recommended, but there are statically
  linked binaries.

Krzysztof G. Baranowski - Prezes Klubu Nieszkodliwych Manjakow
"Smith & Wesson - The original point and click interface..."


5. help with long linux booting
From: OracLe <aren@mnl.v-link.net>


i succesfuly managed to install my linux in my hard disk(clap and
appluase~!!) anyway, when i boot using the bootdisk i created after
the instalation, i still have to go through the process of my bootdisk
scanning the system which takes pretty long...

   scanning 183 299  creative
   scanning 190 204  artec
   scanning  ....etc etc.

this goes up to 20 to 30 minutes.

can i boot without this agonizing experience?



[ Jon: Make a new boot disk with a different kernel image. See the Bootdisk
       HOWTO ]


6. Re: X-terms and Sudo
From: Someone

> #6. X-terms
> #From: Anonymous
> #I know that I can use alt-<function key> to move between tty's and login
> #as different users when I am using the command line..  Is there any way
> #to start different xterm windows and login to them as different
> #users?
> It's simple. Run another xterm and then  su <user>. Give a password
> and have fun. I suppose you know how to move between windows ;-).
> Kris

Admittedly, *THAT* is simple, but that's not exactly what I wanted to
know.  If you recall, I went on to ask another more important question.

['> #' added beacause it's part of my original message, even though Kris
 did not actually quote it.]

> #Is there any way to start an xterm window as 'foo' and let 'bar'
> #inherit the window with all permissions to it so that messages
> #generated there are said to originate with 'bar'?

that to stand out from the rest of the message.]  The correct answer
might vary depending on how tight the security on your installation
is, but on my little testbed [a 386 with the 1.1.61 kernel] neither 'su'
nor 'login' is capable of masking your identity from other users on the
system.  This was true of my box for both X an command line.

I have printed up a couple scripts I made that show this happening and
sent them to the "Happy Hacker" digest, since that seems like a more
appropriate place to discuss such things.

Kris (or anybody else), I'd really like to continue this thread in
that list....I'm hoping that you can tell me of a good way to mask my identity.


7. FIPS Blues
From: Tuan Pham <fifo@concentric.net>

To Jon and HSAD subscribers :(.  I want to take linux off my partiton and get my hd space back.  I
 used FIPS to resized it the last time.  But after reading the FAQ on fips, it said that I needed
a boot and root image of my original hd.  How can I resize it, if I don't have it?  Also would usi
ng a disk editor mean fdisk?  It said that if I don't have the boot and root image of my original
hd then I would have to study the (my) hard drive sector and recalculate things.  By the way, earl
ier I thought if I went to fdisk and select 3 to delete partitions it would del non-dos partiton 2
 and 3 for me..but I guess it only took it off the list.  Could anyone help?

[Jon: What you can do now is add another DOS partition, in the space of the
      two Linux partitions. This is better anyways, becuase it saves you disk
      space (read up on cluster size and wasted space).
      If you want to get back to your original setup, with one big partition,
      you're going to want to get PartitionMagic, for $59. It will allow you
      to delete the two Linux partitions, and then resize the DOS parition to
      take up the whole hard drive. ]


8. Libraries
From: Jason William RENNIE <jrennie@hardy.ocs.mq.edu.au>

Another linux question,

Often i have a program to compile and gcc spits the dummy when it cant
find a library its lookign for. So how do i get addational lib's and how
do i install them in slackware 3.1 ?? Can anybody point me in the right
direction ??


[ Jon: Any particular library in particular. Just search for the library's
       name, you're bound to find it. Some libraries are proprietary though,
       and you will have to may for them. ]


From: BJ Johnson <bjjohnson@usinternet.com>

1.   I've gotten my PPP connect going fine.  Now I'm trying to setup
pine to get my e-mail.  I'm using a dialup account on my ISP with
dynamic IP addressing.  I configured the news-group part of it, and that
works great.  I can even send mail out.  But it will not pick it up form
my ISP.  My mail-check-interval is set right and I have the SMTP server
set properly.  What am I forgetting?

2.    How do I see how much room I have left on my hard-drive without
X?  (RH 4.1 if it matters.)

[ Jon: Simple, use 'df'. It'll give you a usage summary for all mounted
       partitions. ]

BJ Johnson


10. chmod +x  and mtools
From: noname <noname@blah.com>

How do i make a shell script executable? I wrote one called
lsa which executes the ff command:

ls -a

I chmod +x 'ed it then entered lsa at the prompt and what I get is this:

bash: lsa: command not found

[ Jon: I can't see your problem, but why do it that way. You can do it much
       easier using "alias". Do a man alias to find out more. ]

And regarding mtools.. I was playing around with it yesterday and I'm
not so sure what I did but now whenever I type mdir, it says
"Path component "NEW"is not a directory. File "a" not found.
I remember creating the "New" directory, then mcd-ing to it, then
mcd-ing back to the parent (mcd ..), typing mdir a:\new, mrd, mcd and a
slew of other commands but none of them work. I keep receiving the same
output even after sliding in another floppy in the drive. Can someone
help pls? Thanks.

[ Jon: Hmm. What are the mtools? ]


11. Linux from the CD
From: Alan D M <alandm@HotStar.net>

Hold the flames for a minute or two: I have Red Hat Linux 3.0.3 on a two
CDRom set and I'm experiencing a mild delay getting a second hard drive to
put it on. In the meantime, however, I'd like to run the Linux, hack around
on it, just using the CD roms. I believe that's possible: there's a
fleeting reference to this oddball way of using Linux in the O'Reilly book
I have, but there's little in the way of direction as to how to go about
Obviously, I don't want to use this method for long -- but until I get my
second hard drive I don't want to be staring at the two CD Roms just
wishing I could install them.
Any help out there?

[ Jon: Hmm. I think you can do it. If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM drive.
       One of the CD's may have a "live" filesystem on it. If so, you may be
       in luck. Try making a bootdisk, and rdev it so that it points to the
       live cd. You're not going to be able to do much, and it'll be as slow
       as hell. ]


12.. Winmodems and Linux NOT
From: Bill Eldridge <bill@rfa.org>

If the modem in question was a Winmodem,
the US Robotics manual says they won't work
with DOS or anything else, which seems sadly
true.  From Hyperterminal, you can do AT
commands that seem to show the modem alive
and functioning, but you simply don't seem
to be able to get ATDTxxxxxxx to work.
Efforts to use this with Linux seem even
more doomed.  I don't think it's a PnP
issue, though I could be wrong.  Anyway,
wasted a few hours trying to get a DOS
dial-up program to work with them, and
finally just threw my old Sportser 14.4k
in instead.


[ Jon: You're right. Winmodems suck becuase they aren't real modems. They
       rely on software to do most of the modeming. That's why they aren't
       supported/liked in Linux. Check out US Robotics' homepage for more
       information. ]


Moderated by Jon McClintock

Send submissions and subscription requests to:

This document, and other HSAD issues, can be retrieved at:

All postings remain copyright their original authors.

 __ __                      __ __         __
              / // /__ ____  ___  __ __  / // /__ _____/ /_____ ____
             / _  / _ `/ _ \/ _ \/ // / / _  / _ `/ __/  '_/ -_) __/
            /_//_/\_,_/ .__/ .__/\_, / /_//_/\_,_/\__/_/\_\\__/_/
                     /_/  /_/   /___/
                              ___  _              __
                             / _ \(_)__ ____ ___ / /_
                            / // / / _ `/ -_|_-</ __/
                           /____/_/\_, /\__/___/\__/
July 28, 1997
This is a moderated list for discussions of *legal* hacking.
      You can find subscription and other info
           near the end of this message.

 Search for New Moderator(s)
 Mac Hacking
 New Netscape Java Security Hole
 The Week the Internet Almost Died
 Looking for Women Hackers

 *** Search for New Moderators

Happy Hacker folks, this is your Fearless Founder, Carolyn Meinel, back
editing this Digest. Matt Hinze, who for some four months has brought his
tact, wit and knowledge to the Digest, has asked that someone new take a
turn running it.  We're sorry to see him go, but that's life:(

Here is what Matt has to say about the end of his stellar tenure as editor:

"It's time for me to step down as the moderator of the happy Hacker Digest.
I want to make it clear that this is not motivated by negative
comments/coercions of any sort, but rather the time-management situation I
find myself in now. I'm too busy to moderate the Digest - and there are
other things (my career, my school work, etc) that take up a lot of my time.
It seems that while the quality of the digest has skyrocketed since I've
taken over, the frequency has diminished. For the digest to be successful,
it needs to be distributed in a timely fashion AND be technically accurate.

"If you think you want to try your hand at moderating the digest, I say go
for it. It's not easy, but it is fun, and if you do it right, it can bring
you a lot of positive experiences. Carolyn Meinel can be an invaluable
resource. And I assure you, I was not doing her dirty work at any time, nor
did she try to censor the digest or anything like that.

"I did have a blast working with the digest - it's just time for me to move
on. While I won't be answering all of my mail, send me your questions or
comments at matt@cs.utexas.edu.

"This has all been wonderful, but now I'm on my way."
    - Phish


So, who wants to fill Matt's shoes? Temporary guest editors are welcome, but
another person who can handle the entire job would be really welcome. This
can be an exciting job. True, it pays nothing, but there is the prestige of
running a hacker ezine that after being in existence less than a year, now
has almost 5,000 subscribers.  Also, there are many fringe benefits:

Top ten reasons to become Happy Hacker Digest editor:

10. You will rake in tons of money selling hacker secrets to guys in trench

9. Supermodels will beg you for dates. Women hackers: visualize Fabio!!!!

8. Hackers everywhere will revere you for your wit and wisdom and phear your
haxor sk1llz. You will never be flamed again.

7. Celebrities will take you out to expensive restaurants and insist that
you eat raw fish.

6. On IRC no one will dare flood or ICMPing you.

5. The Mafia will give you a Cray just like they did for that dude in the
movie Sneakers.

4. Carolyn will teach you how to move communications satellites around and
launch nuclear missiles.

3. You will also learn how to blow up people's TV sets over the Internet.

2. Carolyn will shower you with expensive gifts.

And, the number one reason to become Happy Hacker Digest editor:

1. Do you have any idea how much the FBI pays people to become narcs?

Honest, I swear on my honor as a hacker that all these things are true! Us
hackers never, ever ever lie!

So if you're tempted to try out for running the Digest, please email me.
Fame and fortune await you!!!!

 *** Mac Hacking

 by aMbRoSe <ambrose@ConnActivity.ConnActivity.com>

 I have been hacking for a number of years now, and I must say that although
I love my Mac, it's probably the most vulnerable computer around. Macs are
easy to hack, mainly because the simple security programs that are available
just don't do their job well enough, and with the large vulnerability of the
operating system, I have never seen a Mac that I couldn't get root access to
within fifteen minutes. I have even been caught hacking Macs... so I am
really r33t now ;)

Mac Hacking - Step By Step

1. Determine your target

 The first step to hacking a Mac is picking a Mac. You should probably pick
one that is out of the way, because you will be doing some disk
swapping/other stuff that may alert a passing administrator.

2. Determine the target's security/protection

 This step is easy. You should first note the model number and the version
of system software that it is running. This will be very important later.
Then try to get some time on the computer. Try different things, and look
for a security program. Common ones are Foolproof and AtEase. Foolproof will
show you it's logo every time you try to do something that your not supposed
to and AtEase is characterized by it's drool-proof replacement for the
finder. The method that you will use to break in will get past _any_
security, but if you want to remove the security for good then you will have
to know what to look for.

3. Build a system disk

 Remember that model number? Well now it's time to pull it out. You also
should have noted what version of the system software was on that computer.
Lets say that you want to hack a PowerMac 7200 that's running system 7.5.3.
Now go on Altavista or Apple's site or (gasp) AOL (puke) and do a search for
'System 7.5.3' or something like that. Look through the results until you
find the installer or the disk images. Download the disk image called 'Disk
Tools'. The Disk Tools disk has a minimal set of software that will allow
you to boot the target off the disk drive. Once you have download the 'Disk
Tools' image, use a good disk image tool like ImageMaster or DiskCopy and
make a disk from the image.

4. Break in

 Get to the target. Pop your disk in the drive and hold down
Command-Control-Power (power is the little key with the sideways triangle up
at the top of the keyboard). The computer should restart, and then the disk
drive will spin up. If all goes well, you should start up without the
security program, running entirely off the Disk Tools disk. Now that you are
started up, you can do anything, including...

5. Remove the security!

 Note: Don't do this if you don't want people to know that the computer was
hacked! To remove the security program, open up the system folder (usually
named 'System' or 'System Folder' in the root directory) and look for a file
with the name of the security program in the 'Extensions', 'Control Panels'
and 'Startup Items' folders. When you find a file that looks like part of
the security program (and there may be more than one file), delete it.
What's this? It says that it can't be deleted because the file is locked?
Well, just select the file's icon and hit Command-I. This will bring up the
File Info window. There will be a little check-box at the bottom labeled
'Locked' with an 'X' in it. Uncheck it and close the window. Voila! You may
now empty the trash, eject your disk and restart.

       - Ambrose

[Moderator's note: Please don't use this to get in trouble at your school or
library. However, if you want to win points, you could show a teacher or
librarian how easy it is to circumvent Mac security.]

 *** New Netscape Java Security Hole

(This news item came from

                Another hole poked in
                By Alex Lash
                July 25, 1997, 7:10 p.m. PT
Netscape Communications (NSCP) today confirmed that another hole has been
punched in its Communicator browser, the fourth one since the product
shipped in June.

Discovered by Kuo Chiang of the Singapore's Information Technology
Institute, the security flaw affects both Macintosh and Windows versions of
Communicator. It produces
identical results to two previous flaws related to JavaScript, a scripting
language Netscape invented and uses in its browsers. It allows a Web site
administrator to place a nearly-invisible applet on a user's hard drive then
track the user's progress across the Web, including any data the surfer
types into the browser such as credit card numbers.

The company knew about the bug yesterday and has already fixed it, according
to senior security product manager David Andrews. A new version of
Communicator will be available in two weeks to coincide with a scheduled
software upgrade. Users will have to download the entire suite to patch the
security flaw.

Despite having identical results to two previous JavaScript holes, the
latest bug is due to the company's use of LiveConnect, a separate language
used to connect Java and
JavaScript, Andrews said.

"LiveConnect is the way Java and JavaScript communicate with each other.
It's exposing information that it shouldn't be."

Not nearly as scrutinized as Java and ActiveX, JavaScript and other
scripting languages are nonetheless used extensively to deliver information
to browsers. Andrews insisted that the architecture of JavaScript and
LiveConnect are not problematic, but their implementation in the browser
software has created security breaches.

Microsoft's browsers were also affected by the previous JavaScript bugs. The
company released a patch for Internet Explorer 3.0 earlier this week. It is
unclear if the latest bug affects Explorer as well.
 *** The Week the Internet almost Died
by Carolyn Meinel

The week of July 13 may have been the worst week for the Internet since the
Morris Worm of 1988.

· A huge upswing in Denial of Service (DOS) attacks
· Apparent sabotage of the DNS system made .com and .net sites inaccessible
· Damage that took out of service 70 GB/sec of the US portions of the
Internet backbone.
 *** A huge upswing in Denial of Service (DOS) attacks:

There appears to be a concerted campaign against Mac Web servers. Reports
picked up from Tasty Bits from the Technology Front are at:

Also, the ISP owned by the Institute for Global Communications, which hosts
many political organizations of what they describe as a "progressive" bent
recently underwent severe DOS attacks including mail bombing in retaliation
for their hosting of a web site for Basque rebels.

 *** Apparent sabotage of the DNS system made .com and .net sites inaccessible

Then there was the corruption of the DNS (Domain Name Server) system that
misrouted a large amount of Internet traffic. Internic, which manages
registration of domain names and their propagation across the routers of the
Internet, has accused Alternic of maliciously rerouting the system. The .com
and .net domains were affected.

 *** Damage that took out of service 70 GB/sec of the US portions of the
Internet backbone

But what was perhaps the greatest stress on the Internet in years came from
a series of accidents that disabled a large portion of the US Internet
backbone. Following are some excepts from technical news provided by Dale
Amon, technical director and cofounder of The Genesis Access project, the
oldest ISP in Northern Ireland.

From: Dale Amon as Operator <root@starbase1>

>Okay, here's a dump of less than a week's problem reports. ...quite an
impressive week...

>Date: Tue, 15 Jul 1997 17:04:00 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>* there have been intermittent interruptions in service at
> MAE West, the longest late last week lasting several hours.
>* overload on a BBNPlanet circuit into PAIX is causing
> intermittent problems reaching www.apple.com

>Date: Tue, 15 Jul 1997 17:54:44 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>We are having problems in New York right now.  The exact nature of
>the trouble has not yet been determined.  We have no time to fix
>yet, and are running on our California backup circuit.
>Date: Tue, 15 Jul 1997 19:01:00 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>Service has been restored in New York.  The fault appears to have
>due to an engineer mistakenly disconnecting one of our circuits.

>Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 15:14:52 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>1 There is a major failure at Teleglobe's switch in New York.
> This has taken down our London - New York line.  No definite
> time to fix yet, but from prior experience we expect the line
> to be back up by 17:00 BST.
>2 Evidently there has also been a major failure at MAE West;
> a rectifier has failed in one of the battery rooms.  This
> has disrupted traffic across the MAE.  A large part of our
> California traffic goes via MAE West.  There is no definite
> to for a fix on this either; we would expect service to be
> fully restored within two hours, though.
>LINX traffic is at this time normal.  US traffic is all going via
>California, so that circuit is congested.

>Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 15:48:09 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>Teleglobe has isolated the fault in this line to a cable cut in
>Vermont or in Canada near the US / Vermont border.  The cable has
>to be dug up and spliced

>Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 19:12:12 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>Worldcom (= MFS = UUnet = Pipex) lost six major ATM trunks from
>St Louis Missouri to Los Angeles a short while ago.  This has
>disrupted traffic over much of the Internet.
>Our New York circuit has been repaired but so far we are seeing
>very little traffic flow across it, presumably because of the
>Worldcom failure.

>Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 20:01:41 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>We are still seeing reports of major outages in the United States.
>Worldcom/MFS/UUnet/Pipex apparently had or has 496 DS3 (45 Mbps)
>circuits down.  A very large number of ISPs are affected.  Netrail,
>for example, has three different circuits over different fibre
>paths into its PAIX (Palo Alto, California) PoP; all of them are
>down.   Today we also had the second power failure this week at MAE
>West, the second largest peering point in the world, also operated by
>Worldcom / MFS.

>Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 11:40:28 +0100 (BST)
>From: Gordon Henderson <gordon@vbc.net>

>You may be experiencing problems accessing various sites through the world
>this morning. At present, it looks like there is a problem with most of
>the root nameservers. Best information I've seen so far is that they have
>been compromised to not respond, or respond with the wrong information,
>most likely through some sort of malicious actions.
>The effect of this is that you probably may not be able to access .com or
>.net sites unless this problem is resolved.

>Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 13:21:43 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>As reported this morning, the root name servers that are at the
>heart of the Internet's domain name system have been sabotaged
>and have been supplying incorrect information or no information
>at all on .com and .net domain names.
>The effect of this is to make a large part of the Internet

>Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 21:12:31 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>We have just gotten reports of fibre cuts in Washington DC ...
>Sprint has lost 250 DS3s (45 Mbps) circuits.
>By my count we have seen 950 DS3s so far out this week, 500 in
>the West, 100 in New York, and now 250 in DC.  And it's only

>Date: Fri, 18 Jul 1997 01:09:21 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>Fibre cuts reported so far this week:
> WorldCom     496 DS3s    southwestern USA
> WorldCom     250 DS3s    New York area
>        Sprint       100 DS3s    DC area
> WorldCom     533 DS3s    Baltimore / DC area
>             ----
> total       1379 DS3s
>Each DS3 is 45 Mbps, so we are talking about a staggering loss of
>bandwidth -- over 62 Gbps of Internet bandwidth in all.

>Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 15:40:22 -0400
>From: Mark E Larson <markl@rust.net>

>WorldCom has experienced a fiber cut between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore,
>MD which is causing outages across multiple U.S. Backbones, in the Northeast
>United States.  The fiber cut effected approx 533 DS-3's.

>Date: Fri, 18 Jul 1997 01:23:34 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>On Fri, 18 Jul 1997, Jim Dixon wrote:
>> Fibre cuts reported so far this week:
>>  WorldCom     496 DS3s    southwestern USA
>>  WorldCom     250 DS3s    New York area
>>       Sprint       100 DS3s    DC area
>correction:          280 DS3s    DC
>>  WorldCom     533 DS3s    Baltimore / DC area
>>              ----
>>  total       1379 DS3s
>so this becomes     1559 DS3s
>> Each DS3 is 45 Mbps, so we are talking about a staggering loss of
>> bandwidth -- over 62 Gbps of Internet bandwidth in all.
>and this becomes 70 Gbps of bandwidth in all.
>My apologies to those who are not interested, but this week from
>Monday has seen a remarkable number of outages in the United States;
>this must be a record.  And we saw the root name servers compromised.
>And there are still three more days left in the week ...

>Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 14:35:41 -0500 (CDT)
>From: Joe Shaw <jshaw@insync.net>

>UUNet is having the same problems between DC and Balitmore, MD.
>Joe Shaw - jshaw@insync.net
>NetAdmin - Insync Internet Services
>"Learn more, and you will never starve." - Paraphrase of Lee
>On Thu, 17 Jul 1997, Eric Wieling wrote:
>> Just got this from Sprint.
>> > Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 08:56:40 -0400 (EDT)
>> > From: Outage Poster <postout@sprint.net>
>> > Subject: Washington DC outage
>> >
>> > 7/17/97  09:10 EDT
>> >
>> > We currently have 280 DS-3's down in our Washington DC relay site due to
>> > a fiber cut.  Customers connect to our DC routers will experience routing
>> > instabilities and delays.  We are working to resolve this problem...no ETR
>> > is available at this time.  We will send a follow-up message to update
>> > this problem. We apologize for any inconvenience that this may have
>> > caused.  Thank you for your patience.

>Date: Fri, 18 Jul 1997 23:06:24 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>
>Reports are just coming in of a major fibre cut in Illinois,
>continuing what must be the most disaster-ridden week ever in
>the history of the Internet.

>Date: Sun, 20 Jul 1997 17:37:25 +0100 (BST)
>From: Jim Dixon <jdd@vbc.net>

>On Sat, 19 Jul 1997, Dale Amon as Operator wrote:
>> Jim - this begins to strain credibility. Have we got a bunch of
>> pro-CDA fanatics getting revenge on the net? That might be
>> extreme, but still, this is just a bit too much to take on
>> board a pure chance. I don't think there have been this many
>> circuits down total over the last 12 months...
>Yes -- and there were reports of two more major cuts that I
>couldn't bring myself to say anything about.  I don't know what
>is going on at this point.

 *** Looking for Women Hackers

Are you a woman hacker? Want to get famous and go on dates with Fabio? Would
you like to go to fancy restaurants with movie producers who will insist
that you eat raw fish? Want to be in a book? Please email Carolyn Meinel
<> and let's start talking. I'm serious. Honest!

and include a 'HH' in the subject
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