F = q(v x B)
where F is force and q is electric charge moving at velocity v in a magnetic field of strength B.

Kinetic Energy:

kinetic energy = ½ mv2
where m is mass and v is velocity

How much of a rocket must its fuel take up:

Propellant mass/delivered mass = [e(Dv/vj) -1]

where Dv is change in velocity, and vj is the velocity of the exhaust gas. Delivered mass includes the structure of the rocket itself.

Penetration Depth of a Hypervelocity Impact:

where P/L is penetration per length of projectile, rp is projectile density and rt is target density. Effects of other geometrical variables such as hollow rods and segmented penetrators have been experimentally explored but remain classified.